*…. e.g.*

`16C`

is still available on some keys`SHIFT`

`6`

= `16C`

so… `SHIFT`

`6`

`USR`

→ `∑MOD`

Try to learn something about everything, and everything about something - Thomas Huxley

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public:calculator:guides:hp16c_emulator

The HP16C Programmer's Calculator is made for manipulating numbers in Binary/Octal/Hexadecimal/Decimal to help with programming and other areas that rely on the nitty-gritty of bit-twiddling.

Swiss Micros make a modern hardware emulation (similar in form to the DM15L I *already* own) but rather than adding another calculator to my (growing) collection I found there is a ROM/Module method to add all (and more) the same features to the DM41X (and presumably the HP41, if you can find a hardware ROM plugin with it).

I occasionally need to do some conversions/calculations into Hex and Binary (thinking of TCP/IP networking, subnet masks etc. or perhaps debugging RS232 serial data, or when writing rig control software?) and being able to do everything on the DM41X (along with the Complex Number module) means the DM41X will become even more useful day-to-day.

The manual for the HP16C Module hp_16c_emulator_manual.pdf

The versions of modules I'm using : hp-16c_rev.1a.zip

The HP16C Manual : https://literature.hpcalc.org/community/hp16c-oh-en.pdf

Like the 41Z Complex Number module, a `USER`

keyboard assignment is made to a *trigger* command which then automagically re-maps the whole keyboard for one command, then it reverts to normal. A mental image of the re-mapped keyboard starts to develop with use, making operation easier with time.

I've *assigned* the `LN` key to the *trigger* command `16C`

for the `USER`

keyboard

`SHIFT` `ASN` `ALPHA` `SHIFT` `1` `SHIFT` `6` `C` `ALPHA` `LN`

With `USER`

keyboard active I generally won't miss the loss of `LN` as I rarely use it.

If I *do* need `LN` I can simply turn off the `USER`

keyboard.

The same applies for using the `∑+` key for entering Statistical Data - it's assigned to the `Complex Keyboard`

trigger `ZKBRD`.

I won't ever be using `statistics`

at the same time as `complex numbers`

(or `HP16C functions`

).

The `USER`

keyboard can generally remain active all the time *except* when I want to do `statistics`

or calculate a `natural logarithm`

. Two easy sacrificed keys. Are there others I can do without for additional assignments to frequently used functions or modules?

I played with the `LADYBUG`

module recently ( see DM41X Ladybug Module ) and enjoyed the more “immediate” keyboard input - with the whole keyboard re-mapped while using the module (in “INTEGER” mode). No need to preface each instruction with a `trigger`

to enable the special keyboard for one command at a time.

I found that the HP16C Module can be switched to “full-time” `16KEYS`

mode too….

You need to get to the `∑BITS`

launcher and then select `Y`

(for `16KE`

) and answer Y or N.
**Y**S

The `16KEYS`

function can't be reached any other way, that I've found. The simplest way is to use the DM41X `CST`

menu to run the 16C `∑MOD`

launcher, then press `SHIFT`

to switch to the `∑BITS`

launcher, then select `Y`

(for `16KEYS`

).

You'll need to enable `USER`

key mode, and then the 16C module can be used without the the need to trigger *every* command with `16C`

(normally ASN'd to `LN`

key).

You still need to use `16NPT`

to input numbers (this is mapped to the `A`

(`∑+`

) key. Otherwise most things are just more intuitive. No need to use `16C`

before an arithmetic operation like `+`

or `-`

etc.

Switch to `BIN`

view

`B`

Enter a binary number `10111011`

`16NPT``10111011``ENTER`

Convert to `HEX`

`E`

H: bb

Convert to `DEC`

`D`

d: 187

Enter a Decimal Number `23`

`16NPT``23``ENTER`

d : 23

Add them

`+`

d: 210

Convert to `BIN`

`B`

b: 11010010

Much more intuitive….

`USER`

keyboard active.

`16C` = `LN` - referred to as `16C` hereafter.

I'll use the `alpha letter`

for the top-row keys to describe them for Base Selection

`16C` `B` = `BINARY`

`16C` `C` = `OCTAL`

`16C` `D` = `DECIMAL`

`16C` `E` = `HEX`

Enter HEX value `5F`

Use the `16NPT` function which lives on the `A` button

`16C` `E` (to get into HEX mode)

`16C` `16NPT` `5` `F` `ENTER`

`16C` `B` gives `1011111`

`16C` `16NPT` (i.e. `Alt`) `1``1``0``1``1``0``0` `ENTER`

`16C` `+` gives `11001011`

`16C` `E` gives `Cb`

`16C` `D` gives `203`

**always enter numbers with **`16C` `16NPT` *the number*`ENTER`

** always use the 16 versions of mathematical functions **

`16C` `+`

`16C` `X`

etc.

These are on *shifted* (and triggered with `16C`

) math keys:

`-`

= `NOT`

`+`

= `OR`

`x`

= `AND`

`÷`

= `XOR`

Example, in binary….

**AND** two numbers:

`11011101`

`AND`

`10001001`

→

`16C`

`B`

(to get into Binary mode if needed)

`16C`

`16NPT`

`11011101`

`ENTER`

`16C`

`16NPT`

`10001001`

`ENTER`

`16C`

`SHIFT`

`X`

gives `10001001`

In HEX…. **XOR** →

`16C`

`E`

(to get into HEX)

`16C`

`16NPT`

`BEEF`

`ENTER`

(first number) (make sure at least 16-bit word size for this example Word Size

`16C`

`16NPT`

`CAFE`

`ENTER`

(second number)

`16C`

`SHIFT`

`÷`

(XOR) gives `7411`

Convert answer to DEC

`16C`

`D`

gives `29713`

Convert answer to BIN

`16C`

`B`

gives a long string of `1`

and `0`

that scroll across the screen…

View the long BIN number using a WINDOW to look at 8 bits at a time…

`16C`

`SHIFT`

`R/S`

This asks `WINDOW _ `

and enter `0`

for the 1^{st} (MSB) 8 bits:

`W0: 11101000:b`

Scroll to sequential `WINDOW`

slices with `+`

and `-`

→

`+`

→

`W1: 0010001:b`

`+`

→

`W2: :b`

The full 16-bit number is therefore:

`111010000010001`

The word size can be up to `64`

bits. In general most stuff is 4, 8 or 16 bits wide, so you can set the size of the binary number in the `∑MOD`

launcher:

`16C`

`USR`

(one of several different ways of getting to `∑MOD`

)

**if 16KEYS keyboard is active** then the quickest way is

`SHIFT`

`2`

as the last method isn't available (no `16C`

assignment) There is then a choice of settings

`B:O:D:H:F - 0: 1:2:W:S:?`

The first four can set the mode to Binary, Octal, Decimal, Float.

`0`

sets`UNSIGNED`

integers`1`

sets`ONE'S COMPLEMENT`

`2`

sets`TWO'S COMPLEMENT`

Word size is checked with `S`

Word size is set with `W`

then enter (eg) `16`

to set 16-bit words.

Word Size can also be set directly from a `16C`

keyboard function `16WSZ`

accessed via `16C`

`SHIFT`

`5`

rather than via the `∑MOD`

menu/launcher

`?`

displays the current settings (press `?`

the quickly press again to hold the displayed info

`0c - 16 - DEC`

This means `unsigned integers`

, 16-bit words, DECIMAL mode.

Lots of functions are available in *launcher* sub-menus, eg a menu of `rotate`

functions, or `shift`

functions.

The various *launchers* are available cyclically via the `16C`

`XEQ`

along with `SHIFT`

and `A`

Some trial and error is needed to find what you want, but it starts:

`16C`

`XEQ`

→ `R: L LN RN R`

which is a menu to do bit-rotations.

Rotate 1-bit Left by pressing top-row button `B`

Rotate N-bits left with top-row button `C`

(and enter the number of bits)

Rotate N-bits Right with top-row button `D`

(and enter the number of bits)

Rotate 1-bit Right with top-row button `E`

.

From the `R`

menu:

`A`

give the `S: L LN RN R`

menu to `SHIFT`

bits Left or Right

From the `S`

menu:

`XEQ`

gives `∑R : …………………. `

which gives lots of options to do things *rightwards* with the bits. list them

This goes on via `XEQ`

and `SHIFT`

(`ORANGE`

button) to access several *menu launchers*. Trial and Error and muscle memory.

** assumes 16KEYS is active**

`XEQ` → `∑ROT`

`∑ROT`

→ `XEQ` → `∑LEFT`

→ `XEQ` → `∑MOD`

→ `XEQ` → `∑ROT`

`∑ROT`

→ `A` → `∑SHF`

`∑SHF`

→ `XEQ` → `∑RIGHT`

→ `XEQ` → `∑BIT`

→ `XEQ` → `∑SHF`

`∑LEFT`

↔ `SHIFT` ↔ `∑RIGHT`

`∑MOD`

↔ `SHIFT` ↔ `∑BIT`

`∑SHF`

↔ `SHIFT` ↔ `S“:`

`∑ROT`

↔ `SHIFT` ↔ `RC:`

Numbers can be saved in `16C`

registers via `16C`

`STO`

`NN`

e.g. save a `subnet mask`

of `11111100`

into REG `00`

(a **/30** network `255.255.255.252`

)

`16C`

`B`

(go to BINARY mode)

`16C`

`16NPT`

`11111100`

`ENTER`

`16C`

`STO`

`00`

What is `123`

`AND`

`MASK`

? (what's the *network* base number for host address of 123 using a netmask of 252?)

`16C`

`D`

(decimal so you can enter `123`

rather than a BINARY number)

`16C`

`16NPT`

`123`

`ENTER`

recall mask (it doesn't matter that it was initially stored as a BINARY number, it's displayed in whatever base you are currently using)

`16C`

`RCL`

`00`

`AND`

them

`16C`

`SHIFT`

`x`

answer is `120`

The MASK is still in `16-Register`

`00`

if needed again….

Net address of a host with address `43`

?

`16C`

`D`

`16C`

`16NPT`

`43`

`ENTER`

`16C`

`RCL`

`00`

`16C`

`SHIFT`

`X`

answer : `40`

`xxx.xxx.xxx.43`

has a network address of `xxx.xxx.xxx.40`

`16C`

= `LN`

(i.e. `E`

on top-row)

`16NPT`

= `∑+`

(i.e. `A`

on top-row, must be triggered with `16C`

) ^{2)}

`16C`

`16NPT`

`type in a number`

`ENTER`

(enter a number in whatever base is currently selected)

`BIN`

`OCT`

`DEC`

`HEX`

= `16C`

then one of top-row buttons `B`

, `C`

, `D`

, `E`

(select the required base)

`∑MOD`

= `16C`

`USR`

…. or `16C`

`SHIFT`

`2`

(open a settings menu to set the choice of mode/word/signed)

`NOT`

/ `OR`

/ `AND`

/ `XOR`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

then one of `-`

`+`

`x`

`÷`

(logic functions)

`RR`

/ `RL`

= `16C`

then one of `SIN`

or `COS`

(rotate Left or Right 1-bit)

`RRN`

/ `RLN`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

then one of `SIN`

or `COS`

(rotate Left or Right N-bits)

`SLN`

= `16C`

`TAN`

(shift Left N-bits)

`SRN`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

`TAN`

(shift Right N-bits)

`Sb`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

`7`

(set a bit _ _)

`Cb`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

`8`

(clear a bit _ _)

`B?`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

`9`

(is a bit set or not?)

`#BITS`

= `16C`

`SHIFT`

`∑+`

(i.e. `A`

on top-row) (how many bits are high?)

See Keyboard Overlay Pic above for more hints on `16C`

key assignments

It is recommended to change the assigned key occasionally to prevent wearing it out…..

Page created Fri May 27 21:31:20 2022 by John Pumford-Green

Page last updated: 05/08/24 11:02 BST

`16C`

is still available on some keys`SHIFT`

`6`

= `16C`

so… `SHIFT`

`6`

`USR`

→ `∑MOD`

if you forget the

`16C`

and hit `∑+`

directly you'll probably end up with the `complex number`

module keyboard triggger `Z:`

public/calculator/guides/hp16c_emulator.txt · Last modified: 05/08/24 11:02 BST by john